An analysis of a controversial ethical issue using three main theories of ethics
Binstock, M. Elliott, C.
The Golden Rule is a classic example of a normative principle: We should do to others what we would want others to do to us. Virtue Ethics is particularly concerned with the moral character of human beings. The first is that championed by 17th century German philosopher Samuel Pufendorf, who classified dozens of duties under three headings: duties to God, duties to oneself, and duties to others. Hence, the model can weaken the artificial borders between scientific evidence and moral goodness. These include the rights of animals, the morality of animal experimentation, preserving endangered species, pollution control, management of environmental resources, whether eco-systems are entitled to direct moral consideration, and our obligation to future generations. For example: "lying is wrong" can be rewritten as "people ought not to tell lies". We can amass all the reasons we want, but that alone will not constitute a moral assessment. Alternatively, bioethicists have argued that the possibility of human enhancement requires us to consider what sorts of people there should be, alluding to the prospective use of germ-line genetic modifications or selection. Additional issues concern medical experimentation on humans, the morality of involuntary commitment, and the rights of the mentally disabled. Expertise in methods of ethics can be of great benefit but is neither necessary nor sufficient. For the intuitionist: moral truths are not discovered by rational argument moral truths are not discovered by having a hunch moral truths are not discovered by having a feeling It's more a sort of moral 'aha' moment - a realisation of the truth. All of our moral choices are, or at least can be, backed by some reason or justification. The model was easy to use and did not require a professional ethicist.
One famous way of putting this is 'the greatest good for the greatest number of people'. Is the model internationally transferable? Ross, which emphasizes prima facie duties.
HTA is never value-free, so making values explicit is the key to increasing the international transferability and policy relevance of HTA. For instance, the fluoridation of water is considered by some to be unethical insofar as it prohibits the consumer to exert any degree of choice over the enhancement.
An Authentic Life Closely allied to the concern about how one attains achievements is an ethical issue that has been articulated often in relation to psychopharmacological substances, such as Prozac Elliot Oslo: University of Oslo; She asked the hired driver to pull over to assist, but, to her surprise, the driver accelerated nervously past the scene.
Indeed, these examples are also characterised by a lack of consensus about their value. Thus, teleological rules place more serious and extensive demands on behavior. The ethical, social and organizational implications of a technology may be of greater importance than effectiveness in countries where resources are scarce.
In a sense, it is a search for an ideal litmus test of proper behavior.
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