The arab uprisings
The dramatic protests eventually forced Mubarak, who had ruled for 30 years, out of office. The dream of democracy also proved fleeting in Syria, where the peaceful pro-democracy protesters were met with government opposition.
The mufti of Egypt, Ali Gomaa, proclaimed that rising against a lawful ruler—President Mubarak—was haram, not permissible. October 23, Tunisia holds first democratic parliamentary elections. The protest movement of was, at its core, an expression of deep-seated resentment at the aging Arab dictatorships some glossed over with rigged electionsanger at the brutality of the security apparatus, unemployment, rising prices, and corruption that followed the privatization of state assets in some countries.
Why the Name 'Arab Spring'?
The arab uprisings
Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, Bouazizi had his wares confiscated by a municipal inspector on 17 December Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek reelection in he ultimately retracted his announcement and ran anyway ,  as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki , whose term was to end in ,  although there were violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation in Egypt, Tunisia, and Yemen entered an uncertain transition period, Syria and Libya were drawn into a civil conflict, while the wealthy monarchies in the Persian Gulf remained largely unshaken by the events. August 20, Rebels in Libya launch battle to take control of Tripoli. Following the controversial election of Mohamed Morsi in , a coup led by defense minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi installed the latter as president in , and he remains in power today. Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan Civil War stoked a simmering conflict in Mali that has been described as 'fallout' from the Arab Spring in North Africa. It was followed by the Egyptian uprising in January and later the same year by uprisings in Syria, Libya and Yemen. They reveal the general entrenchment of autocracy in the Arab region from the end of the Second World War, when most of the Arab countries became independent, up to the present time.
And the Muslim Brotherhood's old guard joined in the protests reluctantly only after being pushed by the group's young people. In FebruaryUnited States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.
Luciani ed. In JuneMorsi is elected president, but is removed from power by coup in July
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